Fundamental lemma of calculus of variations

In mathematics, specifically in the calculus of variations, a variation δf of a function f can be concentrated on an arbitrarily small interval, but not a single point. Accordingly, the necessary condition of extremum (functional derivative equal zero) appears in a weak formulation (variational form) integrated with an arbitrary function δf. The fundamental lemma of the calculus of variations is typically used to transform this weak formulation into the strong formulation (differential equation), free of the integration with arbitrary function. The proof usually exploits the possibility to choose δf concentrated on an interval on which f keeps sign (positive or negative). Several versions of the lemma are in use. Basic versions are easy to formulate and prove. More powerful versions are used when needed.

Here „smooth“ may be interpreted as „infinitely differentiable“, but often is interpreted as „twice continuously differentiable“ or „continuously differentiable“ or even just „continuous“, since these weaker statements may be strong enough for a given task. „Compactly supported“ means „vanishes outside





(


c


,


d


)




{\displaystyle (c,d)}


for some





c




{\displaystyle c}


,





d




{\displaystyle d}


such that





a


<


c


<


d


<


b




{\displaystyle a<c<d<b}


„; but often a weaker statement suffices, assuming only that





h




{\displaystyle h}


(or





h




{\displaystyle h}


and a number of its derivatives) vanishes at the endpoints





a




{\displaystyle a}


,





b




{\displaystyle b}


; in this case the closed interval





[


a


,


b


]




{\displaystyle [a,b]}


is used.

The special case for g = 0 is just the basic version.

Here is the special case for f = 0 (often sufficient).

If, in addition, continuous differentiability of g is assumed, then integration by parts reduces both statements to the basic version; this case is attributed to Joseph-Louis Lagrange, while the proof of differentiability of g is due to Paul du Bois-Reymond.

The given functions (f, g) may be discontinuous, provided that they are locally integrable (on the given interval). In this case, Lebesgue integration is meant, the conclusions hold almost everywhere (thus, in all continuity points), and differentiability of g is interpreted as local absolute continuity (rather than continuous differentiability). Sometimes the given functions are assumed to be piecewise continuous, in which case Riemann integration suffices, and the conclusions are stated everywhere except the finite set of discontinuity points.

This necessary condition is also sufficient, since the integrand becomes





(



u



0




h



)






+


(



u



1





h







)






+






+


(



u



n






1





h



(


n






1


)





)






.




{\displaystyle (u_{0}h)’+(u_{1}h‘)’+\dots +(u_{n-1}h^{(n-1)})‘.}


The case n = 1 is just the version for two given functions, since





f


=



f



0




=



u



0









{\displaystyle f=f_{0}=u’_{0}}


and






f



1




=



u



0




,




{\displaystyle f_{1}=u_{0},}


thus,






f



0









f



1







=


0.




{\displaystyle f_{0}-f’_{1}=0.}


In contrast, the case n=2 does not lead to the relation






f



0









f



1







+



f



2







=


0


,




{\displaystyle f_{0}-f’_{1}+f“_{2}=0,}


since the function






f



2




=



u



1






{\displaystyle f_{2}=u_{1}}


need not be differentiable twice. The sufficient condition






f



0









f



1







+



f



2







=


0




{\displaystyle f_{0}-f’_{1}+f“_{2}=0}


is not necessary. Rather, the necessary and sufficient condition may be written as






f



0








(



f



1









f



2








)






=


0




{\displaystyle f_{0}-(f_{1}-f’_{2})’=0}


for n=2,






f



0








(



f



1








(



f



2









f



3








)







)






=


0




{\displaystyle f_{0}-(f_{1}-(f_{2}-f’_{3})‘)’=0}


for n=3, and so on; in general, the brackets cannot be opened because of non-differentiability.

Generalization to vector-valued functions





(


a


,


b


)








R




d






{\displaystyle (a,b)\to \mathbb {R} ^{d}}


is straightforward; one applies the results for scalar functions to each coordinate separately, or treats the vector-valued case from the beginning.

Similarly to the basic version, one may consider a continuous function f on the closure of Ω, assuming that h vanishes on the boundary of Ω (rather than compactly supported).

Here is a version for discontinuous multivariable functions.

This lemma is used to prove that extrema of the functional

are weak solutions





y


:


[



x



0




,



x



1




]






V




{\displaystyle y:[x_{0},x_{1}]\to V}


(for an appropriate vector space





V




{\displaystyle V}


) of the Euler–Lagrange equation

The Euler–Lagrange equation plays a prominent role in classical mechanics and differential geometry.

Amelia Alcock-White

Amelia Alcock-White (Vancouver Island, Canada) is a contemporary Canadian artist based in Vancouver. She studied fine art at Vancouver Island University and Emily Carr University of Art and Design. Alcock-White is known for her oil paintings depicting water, myths, philosophy, and the west coast.

The latest collection of work, Water Born 2012, is described as a passionate collection of paintings that explore rebirth, identity, history, and humanity’s origins. Her work is characterized by an elegant balance between mythical and realistic imagery. The tightly woven, reflective waters of her canvases are overlaid with figurative narratives and the result is a body of work that is both beautiful and, at times, haunting. Her style has also been described as a, combination of representationalism, realism; naturalism, and takes the form of illustrational depictions of happiness using stylized, personal exaggerations and distortions. It is Post-Surrealism! Her technical virtuosity more than adequately presents her perception and cognition of an ideal romantic world in which she is both instigator and willing participant.. Her work has been published in „a large and lavish colour catalogue showcasing paintings by a new and very talented Vancouver artist“

Alcock-White has appeared on CBC National Radio and television, Urban Rush. Her work has been discussed and reviewed in The Globe and Mail, Juxtapoz Art & Culture Magazine, Galleries West., Notable Magazine., The Sun, Canadian Art, Empty Kingdom, Hyperallergic, The Commentary, Installation Magazine, Hot Art Wet City.

Alcock-White’s work is found in many collections and has been exhibited internationally and across Canada including the Vancouver Art Gallery. and the Canada Council Art Bank. Solo exhibitions include Opener, Simon Patrich Gallery (Vancouver)2004, The Art of Staying Afloat 2007, Gallery O Contemporary and Water Born, Petley Jones Gallery 2012 Accompanied with the limited edition publication, Water Born Her work has been included in group exhibitions in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Toronto, and New York.

Alcock-White donates art to the non-profits: Shanti Uganda, Vancouver Aquarium, Art for life, and the David Suzuki Foundation. Her latest project was “Painting for Change” an art campaign for ocean conservation.

Alcock-White is represented by the Petley Jones Gallery in Vancouver.

„Solitudes“ Fine Art Book. Published 2014. „Water Born“ Fine Art Book. Published 2012. „Opener: The Paintings of Amelia Alcock-White“ Published 2004.

Российско-кувейтские отношения

Российско-кувейтские отношения — двусторонние дипломатические отношения между Россией и Кувейтом.

Советско-кувейтские дипломатические отношения были установлены 11 марта 1963 года.

28 декабря 1991 году эмир Кувейта направил президенту России послание, в котором заявил о признании Российской Федерации.

На высшем уровне получила развитие практика обмена посланиями и визитами, налажены контакты по линии парламентов двух стран.

Осуществляется военно-техническое сотрудничество.

Объём торгово-экономических связей незначителен. В 1991 году образовался значительный советский долг перед Кувейтом, который Россия погасила в 2016 году (выплаченная сумма составила 1,72 млрд долларов, из которых сам долг в размере 1,1 млрд долларов был оплачен деньгами, а 620 млн долларов процентов погашены поставками товаров).

Руководство Кувейта рассматривает присутствие России в регионе в качестве важного фактора обеспечения безопасности и стабильности в зоне Персидского залива.

Прямого авиасообщения между Россией и Кувейтом нет. Регулярные рейсы международных авиакомпаний, связывающие Москву и Эль-Кувейт, осуществляются через аэропорты Амстердама, Афин, Дохи, Дубая, Каира, Лондона и Стамбула.

Азербайджан • Армения • Белоруссия • Казахстан • Киргизия • Молдавия • Таджикистан • Туркменистан • Украина • Узбекистан

Абхазия¹ • Австрия • Албания • Андорра • Бельгия • Болгария • Босния и Герцеговина • Ватикан • Великобритания • Венгрия • Германия • Греция • Грузия • Дания • Ирландия • Исландия • Испания • Италия • Кипр • Латвия • Литва • Лихтенштейн • Люксембург • Македония • Мальта • Монако • Нидерланды • Норвегия • Польша • Португалия • Румыния • Сан-Марино • Сербия • Словакия • Словения • Финляндия • Франция • Хорватия • Черногория • Чехия • Швейцария • Швеция • Эстония • Южная Осетия¹

Афганистан • Бангладеш • Бахрейн • Бруней • Бутан • Восточный Тимор • Вьетнам • Израиль • Индия • Индонезия • Иордания • Ирак • Иран • Йемен • Камбоджа • Катар • Китай • КНДР • Кувейт Лаос • Ливан • Малайзия • Мальдивы • Монголия • Мьянма • Непал • ОАЭ • Оман • Пакистан • Палестина • Республика Корея • Саудовская Аравия • Сингапур • Сирия • Таиланд • Турция • Филиппины • Шри-Ланка • Япония

Алжир • Ангола • Бенин • Ботсвана • Буркина-Фасо • Бурунди • Габон • Гамбия • Гана • Гвинея • Гвинея-Бисау • Демократическая Республика Конго • Джибути • Египет • Замбия • Зимбабве • Кабо-Верде • Камерун • Кения • Коморские острова • Кот-д’Ивуар • Лесото • Либерия • Ливия • Маврикий • Мавритания • Мадагаскар • Малави • Мали • Марокко • Мозамбик • Намибия • Нигер • Нигерия • Республика Конго • Руанда • Сан-Томе и Принсипи • Свазиленд • Сейшелы • Сенегал • Сомали • Судан • Сьерра-Леоне • Танзания • Того • Тунис • Уганда • ЦАР • Чад • Экваториальная Гвинея • Эритрея • Эфиопия • ЮАР • Южный Судан

Антигуа и Барбуда • Аргентина • Багамы • Барбадос • Белиз • Боливия • Бразилия • Венесуэла • Гаити • Гайана • Гватемала • Гондурас • Гренада • Доминика • Доминиканская Республика • Канада • Колумбия • Коста-Рика • Куба • Мексика • Никарагуа • Панама • Парагвай • Перу • Сальвадор • Сент-Винсент и Гренадины • Сент-Китс и Невис • Сент-Люсия • Суринам • США • Тринидад и Тобаго • Уругвай • Чили • Эквадор • Ямайка

Австралия • Вануату • Кирибати • Маршалловы острова • Микронезия • Науру • Новая Зеландия • Палау • Папуа — Новая Гвинея • Самоа • Соломоновы острова • Тонга • Тувалу • Фиджи

ООН (Совет Безопасности, Генеральная Ассамблея) • Большая восьмёрка • Большая двадцатка • СНГ • ОДКБ • Союзное государство • ЕврАзЭС (Таможенный союз) • СЕ • ОБСЕ • ЕС • НАТО • АСЕАН • АТЭС • ШОС • СВМДА • ОИС • БРИКС

Audrey Meaney

Audrey Lilian Meaney (born 1931) is an archaeologist and historian specialising in the study of Anglo-Saxon England. She has published several books on the subject, including Gazetteer of Early Anglo-Saxon Burial Sites (1964) and Anglo-Saxon Amulets and Curing Stones (1981).

Meaney was born in England, and took a BA in English at Oxford. In 1955, she was appointed as Carlisle Research Student at Girton College, Cambridge, to undertake her PhD in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic (completed in 1959), entitled A Correlation of Literary and Archaeological Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Heathenism. This established Meaney’s interdisciplinary approach to early medieval history, which is noteworthy for its combination of archaeological and textual sources.

On finishing her PhD, Meaney moved to Australia, to the English Department at the University of New England; ‚in the interests of her marriage‘ she moved to Sydney, taking temporary academic positions there until, in 1968, she was appointed to the recently formed Macquarie University, where she taught until her retirement in 1989, balancing the requirements of work with those of motherhood. In 1984, she became the first Macquarie academic to be elected as a Fellow to the Australian Academy of the Humanities. According to Di Yerbury,

Meaney took a leading role in founding the Sydney Medieval and Renaissance Group and the Australian and New Zealand Association for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. On her retirement, she moved to Cambridge.

Meaney produced A Gazetteer of Early Anglo-Saxon Burial Sites, published by George Allen & Unwin in 1964 . Asserting that it was „in intention exhaustive up to the end of 1960“, she noted that she had not included later discoveries due to her residence in Sydney. While teaching in Australia, Meaney returned frequently to the UK to undertake excavations. and 1970 saw her publication, jointly with Sonia Hawkes, of the excavation report for Two Anglo-Saxon cemeteries at Winnall, Winchester, Hampshire. The 1980s saw Meaney shifting her focus from archaeology to written texts, developing her work on amulets in an influential series of articles on Anglo-Saxon medicine which have made her one of the most important commentators on the history of early medieval Western medicine.

A detailed list of Meaney’s publications up to around 1992 was provided by Spinks.

Meaney’s retirement from Macquarie University prompted a 1992 special issue of the journal Parergon, Essays on Early England in Honour of Audrey Meaney.

In 2010, Oxbow Books published an anthology titled Signals of Belief in Early England: Anglo-Saxon Paganism Revisited, edited by the archaeologists Martin Carver, Alex Sanmark and Sarah Semple. The book was published in honour of Meaney, „in appreciation of her studies of Anglo-Saxon paganism.“ In the foreword, the archaeologist Neil Price commented on Meaney and her influential work, noting that most of the published studies that had previously delved into the world of Anglo-Saxon paganism came from her „monumental output“, and that it was her „years spent patiently excavating Anglo-Saxon attitudes this collection honours.“

Dorfkirche Tribohm

Die denkmalgeschützte Dorfkirche Tribohm befindet sich in dem zu Ahrenshagen-Daskow (Landkreis Vorpommern-Rügen) gehörenden Dorf Tribohm. Sie ist eine der ältesten oder die älteste erhaltene Kirche Nordvorpommerns.

Die Kirche wurde, wie dendrochronologische Untersuchungen des Dachstuhls ergeben haben, um 1250 erbaut. Stilistische Untersuchungen weisen große Ähnlichkeiten zu zeitgleichen Bauten in der Altmark auf.

Erste schriftliche Erwähnung fand der Ort Tribohm 1268, als ein Eckard von Dechow (möglicherweise Dechow bei Ratzeburg) dem Kloster Neuenkamp Land vermachte. 1272 übernahm das Kloster Neuenkamp das Patronat über die Kirche.

Vermutlich 1421 wurde der hölzerne Turm an das Kirchenschiff aus Feldstein angesetzt. 1456 wechselte das Patronat als Geschenk des Klosters Neuenkamp an die Universität Greifswald. Im Zuge des Dreißigjährigen Krieges wurde um 1628 die Inneneinrichtung durch kaiserliche Soldaten zerstört.

1745 wurden Kirche und Turm, die wahrscheinlich im Nordischen Krieg zerstört wurden, wieder aufgebaut, die Inneneinrichtung mit Altar, Kanzel und Patronatslogen barock gestaltet.

Zwischen 1845 und 1847 wurde das Kircheninnere renoviert, farblich geändert sowie eine Buchholz-Orgel von Carl August Buchholz eingebaut. 1873 ersetzte eine neue Glocke die alte von 1650.

Im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts ergab sich ein beträchtlicher Restaurierungsbedarf für den Kirchenbau, so dass er im Jahr 2000 als einsturzgefährdet galt. Das Dach war marode und ließ Wasser durch, der Mauermörtel hielt die Feldsteine nicht mehr zusammen und der hölzerne Turm wich um 60 Zentimeter von der Vertikalen ab. Schon zuvor, 1997, hatte die kleine Kirchengemeinde das Dach notdürftig neu gedeckt. 1998 wurde mit Mitteln der Deutschen Stiftung Denkmalschutz eine Notsicherung des Dachstuhls durchgeführt.

Seit dem Jahr 2002 wurden Turm und Turmhelm, Mauern, Innenausstattung und Boden instand gesetzt. Bis 2006 wurden durch das Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, die Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, die Stiftung zur Bewahrung kirchlicher Baudenkmäler in Deutschland (Stiftung KiBa), die Hermann-Reemtsma-Stiftung, die Zeit-Stiftung, die Katharina und Gerhard Hoffmann-Stiftung, die Kirchengemeinde und den Kirchenkreis sowie private Spenden über 750.000 Euro zur Bewahrung der Dorfkirche Tribohm aufgebracht. Im April 2010 wurden die Arbeiten abgeschlossen.

Die evangelische Kirchgemeinde gehört seit 2012 zur Propstei Stralsund im Pommerschen Evangelischen Kirchenkreis der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche in Norddeutschland. Vorher gehörte sie zum Kirchenkreis Stralsund der Pommerschen Evangelischen Kirche.

Koordinaten:

Bob Bates (Spieleentwickler)

Bob Bates (* 11. Dezember 1953 als Robert Bates) ist ein US-amerikanischer Spieleentwickler und -designer.

Bates begann seine Karriere im Jahre 1986 als Spieleentwickler für die Firma Infocom. Als Autor, Co-Designer oder Produzent hat er bereits über 20 Spieletitel, die insgesamt mehr als 30 Industrieauszeichnungen erhielten, veröffentlicht. Im Jahre 1989 gründete Bates zusammen mit Mike Verdu die Firma Legend Entertainment, diese wurde später aufgekauft und von Atari im Januar 2004 geschlossen. Von 2011 bis 2014 war Bates als Chief Creative Officer für die Browsergame-Firma Zynga tätig.

Die CGW nominierte das von Bates produzierte (und von Steve Meretzky geschriebene) Textadventure Spellcasting 101 bei den Games of the Year 1991 für den Titel „Adventure Game of the Year“ und ordnete es in seiner Liste „15 Funniest Games of All Time“ auf Platz 11 ein. Bates‘ eigenes Spiel Timequest errang 1991 den PC Excellence Award des US-Magazins Game Players. Eric the Unready wurde 1993 von der CGW zum „Adventure des Jahres“ gewählt.

Monster Man (novel)

Monster Man is a psychological thriller about the abduction of two Australian girls. The book is by the Australian author Glynn Parry.

The story is set in Western Australia. Melanie Spencer is just trying to stop males from controlling her life when a man (Levine) who thinks she looks like his deceased sister abducts her. This man has an alter-ego named Monster. Monster is the one who is blamed on all of the bad things that have happened so Levine does not feel guilty. Levine has also kidnapped a little girl (Christine Webster) who also looked like his sister Claudia.

Levine takes these two girl on a trip to his old school where he was bullied and burns it down. He then tries to hide with them down at a beach, but kills a man and his dog to cover his tracks. The two girls then run away.

Whilst everyone thinks that Levine is dead, he then comes back for revenge and tries to kill Melanie whilst she is in hospital recovering from the injuries sustained whilst being a prisoner of him.

Structure follows strategy

In management theory, the thesis that Structure follows Strategy was proposed by the historian Alfred Chandler. This means that a corporate structure is created in order to implement a given corporate strategy.

Chandler substantiated his Structure follows Strategy thesis based on four case studies of American conglomerates that dominated their industry from the 1920s onward. Chandler described how the chemical company Du Pont, the automobile manufacturer General Motors, the energy company Standard Oil of New Jersey and the retailer Sears Roebuck managed a growth and diversification strategy by adopting the revolutionary multi-division form. The M-Form is a corporate federation of semi-independent product or geographic groups plus a headquarters that oversees the corporate strategy and coordinates interdependencies.

Although the organizational M-form was implemented differently by each of the organizations, Chandler showed that the need to restructure arose from a strategic shift driven by new technologies and market changes. The M-form emerged and co-evolved with the development of the transportation and communication industries thereby creating the opportunity to manage across time and space.

He described corporate strategy as the determination of long-term goals and objectives, the adoption of courses of action and associated allocation of resources required to achieve goals; he defined structure as the design of the organization through which strategy is administered. Changes in an organization’s strategy led to new administrative problems which, in turn, required a new or refashioned structure for the successful implementation of the new strategy.

Chandler’s thesis argued that new organizational forms are no more than a derivative of strategy as he defined it.

Hall and Saias inverted Chandler’s thesis, suggesting that Strategy Follows Structure. For example, they point out that a multidivisional structure biases a firm towards a conglomerate strategy.

Henry Mintzberg offered a balanced view, arguing that the relationship between strategy and structure is reciprocal. „Structure follows strategy … as the left foot follows the right.“

Chandler, A.D. Jr. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Hall, D.J. and Saias, M.A. (1980). Strategy Follows Structure! Strategic Management Journal, Vol 1 No 2 (April-June 1980) 149-163

Mintzberg, H. (1990). The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises of Strategic Management Strategic Management Journal, Vol 11 No 3 (March-April 1990) 171-195

Jennifer Nwachukwu, The introduction of Strategy and structure (????)

MyHeritage

MyHeritage is an online genealogy platform with web, mobile, and software products and services. Users of the platform can create family trees, upload and browse through photos, and search billions of global historical records, among other features. As of 2015, the service supports 42 languages and has around 80 million users worldwide. The company is headquartered in Or Yehuda, Israel with additional offices in Tel Aviv, Lehi, Utah, and Burbank, California.

MyHeritage was founded in 2003 by Gilad Japhet (who continues to serve as the company’s CEO). Japhet started the company from his living room in the moshav of Bnei Atarot. For a long stretch of time, the company’s headquarters were located in a family farmhouse in Bnei Atarot. In its infancy, MyHeritage was almost completely self-funded. By 2005, the company had received funds from angel investors. They switched from a strictly free service to a freemium business model.

Early on, MyHeritage required users to upload genealogical information from desktop software. The information could be viewed online, but could not be altered. In 2006, MyHeritage introduced new features including facial recognition software that recognized facial features from a database of photographs to link individuals together. In December 2006, the company acquired Pearl Street Software which was the creator of family tree software (Family Tree Legends) and a family tree submission site (GenCircles) with over 160 million profiles and 400 million public records.

By 2007, MyHeritage had 150,000 family trees, 180 million people profiles, 100 million photos, and 17.2 million users worldwide. The service was available in 17 languages. The company also began offering a new web-based feature that allowed users to upload genealogical information directly to the MyHeritage site. MyHeritage had also received a total of $9 million in investor funding, half of which had come from Accel.

In 2008, MyHeritage raised $15 million from an investment group including Index Ventures and Accel. At that time, the website had grown to 260 million people profiles, 25 million users, 230 million photos, and 25 supported languages. Soon after securing funding, MyHeritage acquired Kindo, a UK-based family tree building service. In 2009, the company released a new version of their free genealogy software, Family Tree Builder, which included the ability to sync between the software and the website.

In 2010, the company acquired Germany-based OSN Group, a family tree website network with 7 genealogy sites under its name. Some websites in the OSN network included Verwandt.de in Germany, Moikrewni.pl in Poland, and Dynastree.com in the United States. The acquisition provided MyHeritage with several new features (including coats of arms, family tree merging, and an option to venture into mobile applications) and a total of 540 million people profiles, 47 million active users, and 13 million family trees. In 2011, those numbers increased to 760 million people profiles and 56 million users after MyHeritage acquired Poland-based Bliscy.pl, another genealogy website.

Other 2011 acquisitions included the Dutch family network, Zooof; BackupMyTree, a backup service designed to protect up to 9 terabytes of offline family history data; and FamilyLink, a developer of family history content sites and owner of a large database of historical records (WorldVitalRecords.com, which included census, birth, death, and marriage records along with an archive of historical newspapers). By the end of 2011, MyHeritage had 60 million users, 900 million people profiles, 21 million family trees, and was available in 38 different languages. The company also released the first version of its mobile app for iOS and Android devices.

In 2012, MyHeritage surpassed 1 billion people profiles and launched several new features including SuperSearch, a search engine for billions of historical records, and Record Matching, a technology that automatically compares MyHeritage’s historical records to the profiles on the site and alerts users whenever a match is found for a relative in their family tree.

In November 2012, MyHeritage acquired one of its primary competitors, Geni.com. The company kept all of Geni’s employees and operated the company as a separate brand in Los Angeles, California. Founded by David Sacks in 2007, Geni is a genealogy website with the goal of „creating a family tree of the whole world.“ The acquisition added 7 million new users to MyHeritage, bringing the total number of members to 72 million. At the time, MyHeritage also had 27 million family trees and 1.5 billion profiles and was available in 40 languages. In addition to the acquisition of Geni, MyHeritage also raised $25 million in a funding round led by Bessemer Venture Partners.

In 2013, MyHeritage entered into a strategic partnership to allow FamilySearch to use its technologies to allow its users to help find ancestors more easily. At the time of the deal, MyHeritage had 75 million registered users and 1.6 billion people profiles. The company also gained access to all United States census records from 1790 to 1940. In April 2013, MyHeritage released Family Tree Builder 7.0 which included new features like sync, Unicode, and Record Matches. MyHeritage also introduced a web feature called Record Detective that automatically makes connections between different historical records.

In 2014, MyHeritage announced partnerships and collaborations with numerous companies and entities. In February 2014, the company partnered with BillionGraves to digitize and document graves and cemeteries worldwide. In October 2014, MyHeritage teamed up with personal DNA service company, 23andMe, to provide personal DNA testing as an option for MyHeritage users. Also in October of that year, the company partnered with EBSCO Information Services to provide educational institutions (libraries, universities, etc.) with free access to MyHeritage’s database of historical records. In December 2014, MyHeritage entered into an agreement with the Danish National Archives to index Census and Parish records from 1646 to 1930 (a total of around 120 million records). The company also surpassed 5 billion historical records in their database in 2014 and launched the Instant Discoveries feature, which enables users to add whole branches of relatives to their family tree at once.

In 2015, MyHeritage reached 6.3 billion historical records, 80 million registered users, and availability in 42 languages. It also released the Global Name Translation technology which automatically translates names from different languages to make searching for ancestors more efficient.

MyHeritage’s products and services exist in the spheres of web, mobile, and downloadable software. The company’s website, MyHeritage.com, works on a freemium business model. It is free to sign up and begin building family trees and making matches. The website will provide excerpts from historical records and newspapers, or from other family trees, but in order to read full versions of those documents, or confirm relationships, the user will have to have a paid subscription. Additionally, only paid users can contact other members.

The MyHeritage online database contains 6.3 billion historical records, including census, birth, marriage, death, military, and immigration documents along with historical newspapers. The SuperSearch feature allows users to search through the site’s entire catalog of historical records to find information about potential family members. Users may also upload photos to their family trees. MyHeritage’s mobile app is available for iOS and Android devices and offers a range of similar features including the ability to view and edit family trees, research historical databases, and capture and share photos.

MyHeritage uses several matching technologies for family history research. These include Smart Matching, Record Matching, Record Detective, Instant Discoveries, Global Name Translation, and Search Connect. Smart Matching is used to cross-reference one user’s family tree with the family trees of all other users. The feature allows users to utilize information about their families from other, possibly related users. Record Matching is similar except that it matches and compares family trees to historical records rather than other family trees.

Record Detective is a technology that links related historical records based on information from one historical record. It also uses existing family trees to make connections between records (for instance, a death certificate and a marriage license). Instant Discoveries is a feature that compares users‘ family trees to other family trees and records, and then instantly shows them a large amount of information about their family found in these sources, packaged as an entire new branch they can add to their trees. Global Name Translation allows users to search for a relative in their preferred language but get historical documents with their relative’s name in other languages.

Search Connect is a feature announced by MyHeritage in July 2015 and released in November that same year. The feature indexes search queries along with their metadata dates, places, relatives, etc. and then displays them in search results when others perform a similar search. The feature allows users performing similar searches to connect with each other for collaboration.

DNA testing is also provided by MyHeritage through partnerships with Family Tree DNA and 23andMe.

Family Tree Builder is free downloadable software that allows users to build family trees, upload photos, view charts and statistics, and more. The software is free to download, but, like the MyHeritage website, uses a freemium model in that users can purchase a Premium package to have more features.

The version 7.0 was released in 2013 and added features like Record Matching, support for Unicode, and a new syncing system. The information on Family Tree Builder can be viewed and updated on the MyHeritage website and the MyHeritage mobile app.

The current version of the software was released in February 2016 with new features for improved performance and data integrity. Unfortunately, user reviews show inconsistencies, bugs and defects in product performance (e.g. blocked syncronisation) and missing support from vendor.

In 2013, MyHeritage was selected by Globes as the most promising Israeli startup for 2013–2014. The company was ranked number one out of a possible 4,800 startups. Also in 2013, Deloitte ranked MyHeritage among the top 10 fastest-growing companies from Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) on the Deloitte Fast 500 list.

Lars Peter Hansen

Lars Peter Hansen er professor i økonomi ved University of Chicago. Han ble født i 1952 i Champaign, Illinois. Lavergradsutdannelsen fikk han ved Utah State University (B.S. Mathematics, 1974) og han forsvarte doktorgraden ved University of Minnesota (Ph.D. Economics,) i 1978. Den første jobben fikk han som assistant professor ved Carnegie Mellon University. Han flyttet senere til University of Chicago hvor han har vært siden.

Hansen har mottatt flere prestisjefulle priser i økonomi slik som: Frisch-medaljen med Kenneth Singleton i 1984 og Erwin Plein Nemmers Prize in Economics i 2006.

Hansen kommer fra en familie med danske aner.

Hansen er mest kjent for å ha utviklet av økonometriske teknikken GMM (Generalized method of moments). Han har skrevet en rekke vitenskapelige artikler hvor han benytter forskjellige datasett, som for eksempel finansielle data og arbeidsmarkedsdata, for å teste dynamiske, stokastiske økonomiske modeller.

Sammen med Ravi Jagannathan utledet han bånd som gir en måte å bruke finansielle data data for å undersøke omfanget av volatiliteten i den stokastiske diskonteringsfaktoren, som er et mål på investor utålmodighet og holdninger til risiko. Det er kjent som «Hansen-Jagannathan bounds».

Hans nåværende forskningsinteresser er særlig langsiktig makroøkonomisk risiko.

Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt og Arieh Warshel

Alice Munro (Canada)

Organisasjonen for forbud mot kjemiske våpen

François Englert (Belgia) og Peter Higgs (Storbritannia)

James E. Rothman (USA), Randy W. Schekman (USA) og Thomas C. Südhof (USA og Tyskland)

Eugene Fama (USA), Lars Peter Hansen (USA) og Robert J. Shiller (USA)

Akerlof / Spence / Stiglitz (2001) · Kahneman / Smith (2002) · Engle / Granger (2003) · Kydland / Prescott (2004) · Aumann / Schelling (2005) · Phelps (2006) · Hurwicz / Maskin / Myerson (2007) · Krugman (2008) · Ostrom / Williamson (2009) · Diamond / Mortensen / Pissarides (2010) · Sargent / Sims (2011) · Roth / Shapley (2012) · Fama / Hansen / Shiller (2013) · Jean Tirole (2014)  · Angus Deaton (2015)

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